Taiguo Siong'iong 460-ji

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Taiguo Siong'iong 460 ji 🔊 (台語常用460字; 460 Common Taiwanese Words) written in MTL with English definitions. Source: Taiguo Siong’iong 460-ji (台語文協會/2004年黃美雲整理) Note: the Taiwanese Harnji shown are not necessarily standard.

Personal pronouns

Main article: Personal pronouns


MTL THJ Hoaguo Engguo
goar 🔊 I; me
gurn 🔊 我們/我的 we; us; (not including listener)
goarn 🔊 我/我們/我等/咱們 we; us; (not including listener)
kaki 🔊 家己 自己 self
larn 🔊 我們/咱 we; us; (includes listener)
lie 🔊 //妳 你/妳/汝 you
lirn 🔊 你們/你的/你們的 you (plural/exclusive)
tag'ee 🔊 逐个 各個/每個 everybody
taixkef 🔊 大家 大家 everybody; all the people
y 🔊 他/她/祂 he; she; it; his; her
yn 🔊 𪜶 他們/他的 they; them

Demonstrative pronouns


cidee cid个 一個 one
ciaf^ 這裡 here
ciah'ee / ciafee / ciaf`ee 遮的 這些 these
ciahniq' 遮爾 這麼 such; so
cit'ee cit个 這個 this one
citkhoarn cit款 這種/這樣 this kind of
hef^ that one
hiah'ee / hiaf`ee 遐的 那些 those
hiaf^ 那裡 there
hiahniq' / hiahni 遐爾 那麼 in that way
hit'ee 彼个 那個 that one
hitkhoarn 彼款 那款 that kind of
sviafkhoarn 啥款 怎麼樣 what kind
symmih'khoarn symmih款 什麼樣 what do you think
zef^ this one

Tone sandhi exceptions:

  • ^: words that never change tone.
  • ': words ending with apostrophe, which will be directly followed by another word with no space.

Interrogative pronouns


joaxkuo 🔊 joax久/偌久 多久 how long
joaxtoa joax大/偌大 多大 how big
joaxzøe 偌濟 多少 how many; how much
kuyee 幾个 幾個 how many
kuyjit 幾日 幾日 how many days
kuykafng 幾工 幾天 how many days
kuytiarm 幾點 幾點 what time it is
nar how; why; what
nar øe 那會 怎會 how come; how could this be possible
sviafhøex sviaf貨/啥貨 甚麼/什麼東西 what
sviaflaang 啥人 哪個/孰/誰/誰人/誰個 who
sviar what
symmih^/sviafmih sym物/啥物 什麼 what
symmih'laang sym物laang 什麼人 who
tafcidee/tøfcidee tøfcid个/佗一个/哪一个 哪一個 which one
tafcidhang tafcid項 哪一項 which item
tafcidui tafcid位 哪一位 which one
tangsii 當時 何時 when
tafui/tøfui tøf位/佗位 那裡 where
uixhøo 為何 因何/為什麼/為何 why; for what
uixsymmih^/ui symmih^ 為sym物/為甚物 為什麼 why; for what


Listen 🔊

afnny/afnnef 按呢 這樣子/如此 well…then
afnzvoar afn怎/按怎 何以/怎的/怎麼 how
ar/iao but; still (synonym iawkøq)
chinchviu 親像 就像 as; such as; as if
citmar cit馬/這馬/即碼 現在 at this moment
hafntid 罕得 少有/難得 rarely; seldom
høfkazaix 好佳zaix/好佳哉 幸好/幸虧 fortunately
iar 或/抑 or
in'ui/sofie 因為所以 because…therefore
kab and; with
kiafmzhae 🔊 檢采/減采 假使 perhaps
kaxngkhoarn kaxng款/仝款/共款 一樣/同樣/相同/相像 same ; similar
koputciofng/koputjiciofng 姑不將/姑不而將 不得已/無奈何 be obliged; have no choice but to; reluctant
lofngzorng 攏總 一共/一總/打總兒/全部 all; collectively
ma 也/亦 also; too
mxbiern mx免/毋免 不免/不必 not necessary; unnecessary; not have to
mxkuo/mxkøq mx過/毋過 不過/然而 but
mxna mx但/毋但 不只/不光/不但 not only…
na 若/如果 if
suxnsoax 順soax/順紲 附帶/趁便/順便 conveniently
pwntøea 本底 本來/原本/先前 at first; originally
taxnsi 但是 但是 but
tiaukafng/thiaukafng 刁工/thiau工 特意 on purpose
tiaukorix/thiaukorix 刁故意/thiau故意 存心/成心/刻意/故意 on purpose
tvaf 現在/如今 now
twciaq 拄ciaq/拄才 適即/剛剛 moment ago

Auxiliary verbs

Listen 🔊

aix 喜歡/想要/愛 want; like
borng 姑且/將就 content oneself with; may as well
bøe 不會 be not able to; not willing to
bøeq 要/如果/快要 want; like
bøexhiao bøex曉/袂曉 不會 don’t know
bøexsae bøex使/袂使 不可以 it can not be; be not able to
bøextaxng bøex當/袂當 未為/不能 it can not be; be not able to
laai let’s ; come
m not
maix 勿/毋 do not
mxthafng mx通/毋通 不可 may not
øe 會/能 be able and willing to
øexhiao øex曉/會曉 能曉/會 know
øexsae øex使/會使 能使/可以 it may
øextaxng øex當/會當 能為/可以 be able to
øextitthafng øex得通/會得通 可以 it can be; be able to
phvae 壞/惡/難 it’s bad to
thafng 通過/可以 may
tiøqaix 著愛 have to

Note on øexhiao, øexsae, etc, while written with øe-, they are pronounced with e basically everywhere except Taipag. However, the bøe- series is more varied across the island.

Adverbs (Huosuu)

See also: Huosuu

Listen 🔊

bøo-tviutii 無張持/bø張持 沒注意/不小心 unexpectedly (see hutjieen)
ciog 足/很 very; very much
ciu then
cyn- very
cviaa very much
iao 還/尚 still; yet
iawbøe 猶未/iaw未 尚未 not yet
juo...juo 愈…愈 () 愈…愈 the more…the more
kaix very
kaq to
kantvaf 干tvaf/干焦 只有 only; merely
khaq 比較/更/再 more
køhkhaq køh較/閣較 更較/復較 even more
køq 再/還/更加 again; more
kuikhix 規氣/歸氣 索性/乾脆 simply; totally
liampvy/liammy 連鞭 馬上 at once
lorng 都/皆/全部 all
luo...luo 愈…愈 愈…愈 the more…the more
niaxnia 爾爾 而已 only
siong 尚/最 the most
sioxngkaix 上蓋 the most
suii 馬上 immediately
svakab 相佮 一起 together
sviw too much; too many
teq 在/正在 in the process of
thaix very
thaothaux 透透 透徹 thoroughly
yet; though; then
tvaf hai`aq 今害矣 ? too bad
twafhør/twtwafhør 拄af好/拄仔好 剛剛好 just right


(介詞) Listen 🔊

ciaux follow
ciofng going to ; about to
ho 給/乎 to; by
ka 給/跟 with; to
kab with; and
kaux / 到/夠 to; enough
kuozai 據在 隨便 indiscreetly; at one’s convenience
pie compare
suizai 隨在 任憑/任由 at one’s convenience; no matter; regardless
ti at; in
tiaxm 站/在 at; in
ti teq / tixleq 佇leq/佇咧 正在 in the process of
tngf when; at that moment
tuix right; correct
tuy 追? from
uixtiøh 為著 為了 for the sake of

Suffix particles indicating mood

Listen 🔊

`aq/`ax an enclitic at the end of sentence to mark the completion of action
`bøe did… or not
`bøo 沒有 yes or not
`hvoq an enclitic at the end of sentence to indicate emphasize on interrogative mood
`jiblaai `入來 進來 come in here
`jibkhix `入去 進去 get in there
jip`laai 入`來 come in
jip`khix 入`去 to go in
khix`aq 去矣 enclitic affixes to verbs to express completion of action
`khylaai `起來 get up to here
`khykhix `起去 get up to there
`khylix `起去 get up
khvoarmai 看mai/看覓 看看 just try it to see
laq an enclitic at the end of sentence to indicate recognition; affirmative; impatience; completion; request
liq/leq /! an enclitic at the end of sentence to indicate command; emphasize on interrogative mood
løq an enclitic at the end of sentence to indicate completion; exclamation; or emphasize
`løqkhix `落去 下去 downward to there
`løqlaai `落來 下來 downward to here
`oq `喔! an enclitic at the end of sentence to indicate caution; exclamation;
øexsae`tid øex使得/會使得 能使得/可以的 okay; can be; may
tiøh affix to many verbs expressing accomplishment or taking effect

Verbs (Toxngsuu)

See also: Toxngsuu

Listen 🔊

aix 喜歡/想要/愛 love; like
ao 折/扭曲 break and snap
barn pluck
biq 匿/逃避/躲 hide
bøviar bø影/無影 不真實的 no such thing; groundless; unsubstantiated
chi raise; feed
chiaau 移/調整 to adjust; to move
chiøf 𪁎 好色 be horny
chitthøo 𨑨迌 玩耍 play; have fun
chviaa 成/栽培 to raise kids
chviar to request; to ask; to invite
chviax 聘僱/僱用 to hire
chviux to sing
ciah to eat
ciaokhykafng 照起工 按部就班 keep to the working routine
cym to kiss
giaa carry heavy thing over the shoulder
giexn 癮/渴望 to crave; addict
giin stare
hahhix 哈hix/哈唏 喝噓/打哈欠 to yawn
hao 哭/叫 roar; howl
haxmbiin 陷眠 做夢 talk in one's sleep; dreaming
hiaam to detest; to dislike
hiin 眩/暈 dizzy
hipsiong 翕相 照相 take a picture
hiøq 休息 rest
hiw scream; shout
hoaq shout
i to play
jiarng shout
jiog to chase; to follow
kaam 含/唅 hold in the mouth
kah'ix 佮意 中意 feel satisfied; take delight
kaxn intercourse
kerng choose; select
khausøea 剾洗 諷刺/刨說 give sarcastic; ironical caustic comments
khaw 諷刺/刮/刨 speak ironically
khia 豎/站 to stand
khoarn 整理行李 pack; prepare for travel
khuxn sleep
khvoax to see
kiernsiaux 見笑 丟人 feel ashamed; embarrassed
kiørsi 叫是 以為 assume; presume
korng to say; to speak
koxng 打/摃 hit
køeasyn 過身 過世 pass away; die
kviaa 行走 walk
kvoa carry by a handle
kvoaa`tiøh 寒著 著涼 catch cold
laosae 落屎 拉肚子/瀉肚子 have loose bowel
larm embrace/bear
liah 掠/捕 catch; grasp
liam to read; to recite
liaqzurn 掠準 以為 presume
liaxm to drive; to expel
lym 喝/飲 to drink
ngx to face
oar recline; lean on
ølør 呵咾 讚美 praise
parngsag 放捒 放棄 give up; abandon
phag / 覆/仆 lying face down
phahkhachviux 拍咳啾 打噴嚏 sneeze
phahphvae`khix 拍歹去 to ruin; spoil; make a mess of something
phak jidthaau 曝日頭 晒太陽 be exposed to sunshine; sunbath
pharngkvix 拍毋見 丟掉/不見 lose; misplace
phoarpvi 破病 生病 get sick
phvi 聞/嗅 smell
phuix 吐/翻臉/唾 spit
po chew
poah fall down
poaqkiao 🔊 跋筊 賭博 gamble
puun to blow
saf to grasp; to catch
siafphøef 寫批 寫信 to write a letter
siar to write
siuu to swim
siuxkhix 受氣 生氣 get angry; get upset
soahsoaq`khix 煞煞去 算了 to stop or discontinue with intention; call it off
søeaji 🔊/seaji 🔊 細膩 小心 be careful; concerned; deliberate; watchful
søf 搔/搓 stroke; rub; pet
søo 爬行 wonder around
suq suck
tafm lick; taste
thef 靠/躺 recline; lean on
theh 提/拿 to lift
thviaf to listen
tiøo jump
tngr`khix 轉去 回去 go home; go back
tong poke; hole
tør`leq 咧! 倒哩! lying down
tuhkw 盹龜 打瞌睡 doze
zaiviar 知影 知道 be aware of
zao 跑/逃 to run; to leave
zefng hit
zhamsioong 參詳 商量 discuss; confer
zhoa 𤆬 導/迎娶 lead; guide; accompany; escort; show the way
zhoafnkhuix 喘氣 呼吸 breathe
zhoaq to shake; to tremble; to shiver
zhoxng to do; to create; to establish
zhoxng sviar 創啥 創甚 to do something
zhw to slide
zng/cvi 吮/ to lick
zuxn shiver

Adjectives (Heng'iongsuu)


Listen 🔊

bae ugly; mean
bø'eeng 無閒 無閑 busy
bøzhae 無彩 可惜/白費 too bad; regrettable
chirnzhae 凊彩 隨便/馬虎 one or other; either way
chiuchixn 秋凊 涼快 pleasantly cool
chvihun/zhvehun 生份 陌生/生疏 strange; unfamiliar
cidkoar 一寡 少許/一些 some; a little; a few
cidsi'ar 一絲仔 絲毫 a little bit
cidsut'ar 一屑仔 一點點 a little bit
ciør few
eng'eeng 閒閒 閒著沒事 not busy
gaau 𠢕 clever; good at …; wise
gong stupid; silly
hanban/hamban 頇顢/頇ban 愚笨 incompetent; clumsy; unskillful
hiaau lascivious; lewd
hiafm hot; spicy
høfgiah 好額 有錢 rich
høfkhafng 好空 好門路 lucky; blessed
høfsex 好勢 好勢 settled; finished
huiekhix 費氣 麻煩 troublesome; difficult
hvoahie 歡喜 高興 glad ; happy
ientaau 緣投 英俊 handsome
jixncyn 認真 認真 serious
keksae 激屎 傲慢 snobbish; snooty;
khiao 聰明 clever; intelligent
khiarngkhaf 勥跤 精明/厲害 shrewd; ambitious
khoaelok 快樂 快樂 happy
khofng 呆笨 frantic; wild; maniac
khor bitter
khunkhiam 勤儉 勤儉 hard-working and thrifty; diligent and frugal
kiaam salty (also stingy)
kirn 快/急 fast
kofix 古意 忠厚/老實 gentle; mild; well-behaved
kofzuy 古錐 可愛 cute
koarnsix 慣勢 習慣 used to; accustomed to
kutlat 骨力 勤勞 hard-working
kvialaang 驚人 dirty; filthy; soiled
lau old
lahsab 垃圾 骯髒 dirty; filthy
lixpien 利便 便利 convenient
og 不好的 bad; evil
phahpviax 拍拚 打拚 work very hard; exerting the utmost strength
phvae 壞/惡/難 bad; evil
phvaysex 歹勢 不好意思 embarrassed; shy; coy
pintvoa 貧惰 怠惰 lazy
sarnchiaq 散赤 赤貧 poor; poverty
segsai 熟似 熟識 familiar; reminiscent
siab rough; a slightly bitter taste that numbs the tongue
siaolieen 少年 少年 young
sien 𤺪 tired; sick of
simseg 心適 interesting
siok cheap; not expensive
siøfkhoar 小可仔 稍微 some; a little; a few
siongpurn 傷本 高成本/花費大 cost too much; too expensive; costly
sngf sour
soong hick; clownish; bucolic; stupid
søex small; little
suie beautiful
tarngsngf 凍霜 stingy
taxmpøqar 淡薄仔 some; a little bit
thiarm tired; weary
thihkhie 鐵齒 stubborn
thøfzex 討債 prodigal; in expenditure
tiaau 牢/住 tight
tiautit 條直 honest and straight-forward
toa big
tvy sweet
voax 晚/遲 late
zar early
zhengkhix 清氣 clean
zhwn (adj) more than enough
zøe plenty; many

Nouns - blood relation and relations by marriage

Listen 🔊

acie 阿姊 older sister
acirm 阿嬸 the wife of one’s father’s younger brother
afng husband
ahviaf 阿兄 older brother
akim 阿妗 wife of maternal uncle
akofng 阿公 grandfather
aku 阿舅 mother’s brother
amar 阿媽 grandmother
amr 阿姆 the wife of one’s father’s older brother
apeq 阿伯 father’s older brother
azeg 阿叔 father’s younger brother
bor wife
gyn'ar 囡仔 孩子 kids
hauxsvy 後生 兒子 son
khanchiuo`ee 牽手 wife
kviafsaix 囝婿 son-in-law
kviar child; son
mamaf/mafmaq 媽媽 mother
papaf 爸爸 father
Siensvy 先生 Mr.; Sir
simpu/sinpu 新婦 媳婦 daughter-in-law
siøfmoe 小妹 younger sister
siøfti 小弟 younger brother
sixtoa 序大 the senior; elder
sun'ar 孫仔 grandchildren
takef 大家 婆婆 husband’s mother
takvoaf 大官 公公 husband’s father
tangmngg`ee 同門的 連襟 the men whose wives are sisters
tangsai 同姒 妯娌 the women whose husbands are brothers
Thaethaix 太太 Mrs.
tviuxlaang 丈人 岳父 wife’s father
tviuxmr 丈姆 wife’s mother
zabor-kviar 查某囝 daughter
zapof-kviar 查甫囝 son

Nouns describing body (sengkhw)

Listen 🔊

axmkurn 頷頸 neck
bagbaai 目眉 eye brow
bagciw 目睭 眼睛 eye
chiuo hands
chiwkhiaw 手曲 elbow
exhaai 下頦 lower jaw
hengkharm 胸坎 chest; thorax
hvi ears
hvixkhafng 耳空 ear hole/ear
hvixzw 耳珠 ear lobe
kengkahthaau 肩胛頭 shoulder
khachiuo 跤手 手和腳 foot and hands
khaf legs
khazhngf 尻川 buttocks
na'aau 嚨喉 咽喉 throat
paktor 腹肚 stomach
phvi (phvi'ar) nose
sengkhw 身軀 trunk; body
thaukhag 頭殼 head
thaumngg 頭毛 hair
thauzafng 頭鬃 hair
toxzaai 肚臍 belly button
zhuie'extao 喙下斗 lower jaw
zhuiekhie 喙齒 teeth
zhuietuun 喙脣 lips
zhuix mouth

Nouns - general use

Listen 🔊

kankhor 艱苦 hardship
loxiong/loxeng 路用 use
miqkvia 物件 thing
paxnsex 範勢 辦勢 condition; situation
sapbuun 雪文 soap
senglie 生理 生意 business
sihnax 爍爁 閃電 lightning
sofzai 所在 place; location
taixcix 代誌 事情 thing
zhuopvy 厝邊 neighbor

Nouns - Time (sikafn)

See also: sikafn

Listen 🔊

armsii 暗時 at night; night time
armthau'ar 暗頭仔 evening
au`jit 後日 the day after tomorrow
auxjit 後日 幾天後 some other day in the future
bin'afzaix/mia'afzaix 明仔載 tomorrow
bømii-bøjit 無暝無日 day in day out
cidtiafm'ar-kuo 一點仔久 only a little bit long
cidtiap'ar-kuo 一霎仔 in a moment
cirnzeeng 進前 無多久以前 not long ago
citmar 這馬 現在 right now
citzun 這陣 這時 right now
ehngf 下昏 今昏 tonight
eng'axm 下昏暗 今暗/今晚 tonight
etaux 下晝 今罩/今午 this afternoon
expof 下晡 afternoon
extaux 下晝 afternoon
hiexntai 現代 modern
hiøhjoah 歇熱 summer vacation
hiøhkvoaa 歇寒 winter vacation
jit`sii 日時 day time
joaqthvy 熱天 summer
khahtheng'ar 較停仔 in a very short time
kin'afjit 今仔日 today
kinnii 今年 this year
kofzar 古早 long long ago
køeakhix 過去 in the past
kuxnii 舊年 last year
kvoathvy 寒天 winter
Lefpaejit 禮拜日 Sunday
Paeid 拜一 禮拜一 Monday
Paeji 拜二 禮拜二 Tuesday
Paesvaf 拜三 禮拜三 Wednesday
Paesix 拜四 禮拜四 Thursday
Paego 拜五 禮拜五 Friday
Paelak 拜六 禮拜六 Saturday
sincviaf 新正 lunar new year
tangthvy 冬天 winter
thao'axm 透暗 all night; very late at night
thaomii 透暝 all night
thaozar 透早 very early in the morning
thaozar-thao'axm 透早透暗 day or night
thautwar 頭拄仔 not long ago
thvikngf 天光 dawn; at dawn
tiongtaux 中晝 noon
tviaxtvia 定定 quite often
twciaq 拄才 剛剛 just now; just a moment ago
za'axm 昨暗 last night
zafban 早慢 sooner or later
zafkhie 早起 morning
zahngf/zaqhngf 昨昏 昨天 yesterday
zhunthvy 春天 春天 spring
zøh`jit 昨日 前天 the day before yesterday
zuun`nii 前年 the year before last year

Chviar Zhamkhør