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Tiongkor Harnguo Middle Chinese)(中古漢語;
- Refers to the Chinese language (Harnguo) spoken during Southern and Northern Dynasties (420 - 589 CE) and the Sui (Suii), Tang (Toong), and Song (Soxng) dynasties (6th century - 10th century).
- Literary Hokkien, which was originally developed in the 10th century in Fujian (Hokkiexn) and based on Middle Chinese, was used at one time for formal writing, but is now largely extinct.
- The bulk of literary readings (文讀, bunthak) of Harnji are based on pronunciations of the vernacular during the Tang (Toong) dynasty and mainly used in formal phrases and written language. So, literary readings are more similar to the pronunciations of the Tang standard of Middle Chinese than their colloquial equivalents. See Buun-peh-i-thak